The District Rural Development Agency (DRDA) has traditionally been the principal organ at the District level to oversee the implementation of different anti-poverty programmes. It is an effective agency at the district level to coordinate and monitor all the Centrally and State Sponsored Schemes implementation. DRDA is a society register under Societies Registration Act. The District Collector is the Chairman of the District Rural Development Agency.DRDA will be headed by a Project Director who should be in the rank of an Additional Collector or Joint Director of Rural Development. He would be in overall charge of the activities of the DRDA and responsible for interaction with District / State Administration as well as with the Govt. of India. District Rural Development Agency , Nagapattinam was formed on 1991, 18th October under the Chairmanship of District Collector and the Project Officer as Member/Secretary. It have registered as a registered office of the society under sub section (A) if section 13 of Tamil Nadu Societies Registration Act 1975 (Tamil Nadu Act 27 of 1975). The chairman of this agency is the District Collector and the Vice Chairman is the Project Officer or Additional Collector.The objectives of the Agency are as as follows
The main object of Rural Development Department is to provide Basic Amenities to Rural people and to implement various Development schemes like road works. Drinking Water , street Lights , Construction of School Buildings etc. it plays an Important role in the up liftment of rural unemployed people especially Below Poverty Line and SC/ ST people , by providing Integrated Rural Development Programme Loans , TAHDCO Loans , Self Sufficiency Schemes . Also many Women welfare Schemes and Children Welfare Schemes like DWCRA, Moovalur Ramamirtham Ammaiyar Ninaivu Thirumana Udavi Thittam , Iru pen Kuzhandaigal Thittam, and Anjugam Ammaiyar Kalappu Thirumana Udavi Thittam, are implemented by This Departmenr , Also it motivates savings among rural people by conducting R.D. Camps and pay Roll Savings Schemes.
- To Identify the small and marginal farmers and agricultural laborers and their problems in its area.
- To draw up model plans for investment and production, activities to be under taken by the small farmers, marginal farmers and agricultural laborers for solving these.
- To execute these plans for the benefit of the small farmers either directly or to other in co-ordination with the existing agencies in this direction in the field, whether private , public or co-operative such as the Panchayats, Panchayat unions, the agro industries corporation, co-operative banks, commercial banks, departments of the state and governments etc.
- To review the progress of the execution of these activities as well as the effectiveness of the benefits directed towards the small farmers, marginal farmers and agricultural labourers.
- Take steps to ensure adequate credit to the small farers and marginal farmers and agricultural laborers by providing grants to the credit institution operating in the area to cover any loaning risks that they may be exposed to in financing small farmers and by helping them to build up special build up special funds for this purpose.
- To provide grants /subsidies to such credit institutions for strengthening their managerial and supervisory staff.
- To give such assistance to small farmers, marginal farmers and agricultural labourers including grants as many be necessary for furthering the purposes of the plans and schemes undertaken or supported by the society.
- To undertake directly or through others, works programs such as irrigation, land leveling, Bundling, lining, soil conservation etc., as may be deemed necessary / beneficial to the small farmers/marginal farmers and agricultural laborers.
SCHEMES OPERATED BY DRDA
- Social Education
- Construction & Maintenance of Panchayat Union School Buildings.
- Maintenance of Panchayat Union roads.
- Planning permissions .
- Issuing Licence to Dangerous and offensive Trades.
- Small Savings Scheme
- Moovalur Ramamirtham Ammiyar Ninaivu Thirumana Udavi Thittam
- Thamizhaga Arasin Anjugam Ammiyar Kalapu Thirumana Udaiv Thittam.
- Thamizhaga Arasin Iru pen kuzhandigal pathukappu Thittam
- Thanizhga Arasin Ezhai Viddhavai Magal Thirumana Udavi Thittam
- Eye Camp
- Implementing Bio gas Scheme .
- Fixing of Chulha and promoting non conventional energy sources.
- TIDCO Schemes
- Providing one light to one hut.
- Providing Scholarship to SC/ST women Students in Schools
- Self Employment Scheme for SC/ST.
- Inspection of Co- operative Societies and creation of New Co-operative Societies
- Maintenance of Animal Husbandry
- Flood Relief Schemes
- Drought Relief Schemes
- Conducting Panchayat Election .
- Providing Drinking Water Facilities
- Puratchi Thalaivar MGR Noon Meals Scheme
- Basic Amenities provided by Village Panchayats such as Road works , Drinking water , Sanitation Programmes. Collection of House Tax, Street Lights are maintained by panchayat Unions. State Finance Commission Grant Works. Jawahar Velai Vaippu Thittam 15% Anna Marumalarchi Thittam.
- MLA Local Area Development Programme, MP Local Area Development Program
- Namakku Name Tittam
- Employment Assurance Schemes .
- Central Rural Sanitation Program.
- 10th Finance Commission Scheme
- Implementing works recommended by District Panchayat.
- Jawahar Velai Vaippu Thittam 70% works
- Entegrated Rural Development Program.
- Development of women and Children in Rural areas.
- Indira Awas Yojana.
Providing water supply and drainage Street Light Maintenance though the Panchayat Providing Comprise water supply works formation .and Maintenance of Roads Contraction of School and panchayat Buildings and Bridges, Strengthening of M-I-Tanks , Constriction of Group House to in weaker ( All Communities ) and Contraction of Govt. aids to in Poor Familiars under Moovalar Ramamirtham Ammaiyar Tirumana Udavithittam.
- Individual Health and hygiene is largely dependent on adequate availability of drinking water and proper sanitation. There is, therefore, a direct relationship between water, sanitation and health. Consumption of unsafe drinking water, improper disposal of human excreta, improper environmental sanitation and lack of personal and food hygiene have been major causes of many diseases in developing countries. India is no exception to this. Prevailing High Infant Mortality Rate is also largely attributed to poor sanitation. It was in this context that the Central Rural Sanitation Programme (CRSP) was launched in 1986 primarily with the objective of improving the quality of life of the rural people and also to provide privacy and dignity to women.
- The concept of sanitation was earlier limited to disposal of human excreta by cess pools, open ditches, pit latrines, bucket system etc. Today it connotes a comprehensive concept, which includes liquid and solid waste disposal, food hygiene, personal, domestic as well as environmental hygiene. Proper sanitation is important not only from the general health point of view but it has a vital role to play in our individual and social life too. Sanitation is one of the basic determinants of quality of life and human development index. Good sanitary practices prevent contamination of water and soil and thereby prevent diseases. The concept of sanitation was, therefore, expanded to include personal hygiene, home sanitation, safe water, garbage disposal, excreta disposal and waste water disposal.
- A comprehensive Baseline Survey on Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in rural water supply and sanitation was conducted during 1996-97 under the aegis of the Indian Institute of Mass Communication, which showed that 55% of those with private latrines were self-motivated. Only 2% of the respondents claimed the existence of subsidy as the major motivating factor, while 54% claimed to have gone in for sanitary latrines due to convenience and privacy. The study also showed that 51% of the respondents were willing to spend upto Rs.1000/- to acquire sanitary toilets.
- Keeping in view the above facts, the CRSP was improved. In the new format, CRSP moves towards a demand driven approach. The revised approach in the Programme titled Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) emphasizes more on Information, Education and Communication (IEC), Human Resource Development, Capacity Development activities to increase awareness among the rural people and generation of demand for sanitary facilities. This will also enhance people capacity to choose appropriate options through alternate delivery mechanisms as per their economic condition. The Programme is being implemented with focus on community-led and people centred initiatives. Children play an effective role in absorbing and popularising new ideas and concepts. This Programme, therefore, intends to tap their potential as the most persuasive advocates of good sanitation practices in their own house-holds and in schools. The aim is also to provide separate urinals/toilets for boys and girls in all the schools/ Anganwadis in rural areas in the country
The main objectives of the TSC are as under
- Bring about an improvement in the general quality of life in the rural areas.
- Accelerate sanitation coverage in rural areas.
- Generate felt demand for sanitation facilities through awareness creation and health education.
- Cover schools, Anganwadis in rural areas with sanitation facilities and promote hygiene education and sanitary habits among students.
- Encourage cost effective and appropriate technologies in sanitation.
- Eliminate open defecation to minimize risk of contamination of drinking water sources and food.
- Convert dry latrines to pour flush latrines, and eliminate manual scavenging practice, wherever in existence in rural areas
The strategy is to make the Programme ‘community led’ and ‘people centered’. A demand driven approach is to be adopted with increased emphasis on awareness creation and demand generation for sanitary facilities in houses,schools and for cleaner environment. Alternate delivery mechanisms would be adopted to meet the community needs. Subsidy for individual household latrine units has been replaced by incentive to the poorest of the poor households. Rural School Sanitation is a major component and an entry point for wider acceptance of sanitation by the rural people. Technology improvisations to meet the customer preferences and location specific intensive IEC Campaign involving Panchayati RajInstitutions, Co-operatives, Women Groups, Self Help Groups, NGOs etc. are also important components of the Strategy. The strategy addresses all sections of rural population to bring about the relevant behavioural changes for improved sanitationand hygiene practices and meet their sanitary hardware requirements in an affordable and accessible manner by offering a wide range of technological choices.
Implementation of TSC is proposed on a project mode. A project proposal emanates from a district, is scrutinized by the State Government and transmitted to the Government of India (Department of Drinking Water Supply, Ministry of Rural Development). TSC is implemented in phases with start-up activities. Funds are made available for preliminary IEC work. The physical implementation gets oriented towards satisfying the felt-needs, wherein individual households choose from amenu of options for their household latrines. The built-in flexibility in the menu of options gives the poor and the disadvantaged families opportunity for subsequent upgradation depending upon their requirements and financial position. In the campaign approach, while a synergistic interaction between the Government agencies and other stakeholders, intensive IEC and advocacy, with participation of NGOs / Panchayati Raj Institutions/resource organizations, take place to bring about the desired behavioral changes for relevant sanitation practices, provision of alternate delivery system, proper technical specifications, designs and quality of installations are also provided to effectively fulfill the generated demand for sanitary hardware.
The TSC is being implemented with a district as unit. The States / UTs are expected to draw up a TSC Project for the selected districts to claim GOI assistance with commitment of their support. The number of TSC projects in a state are allocated based on the demand raised by the States as well as their performance in implementation of the existing projects. Selection of the districts is done by the respective State/UT Governments. The number of project districts will be progressively increased to cover the entire rural area of the country. The TSC Project cycle in the Project Districts is expected to take about 4 years or less for implementation.
SWARNAJAYANTHIGRAM SWAROZGAR YOJANA [SGSY]
Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY) is to bring the assisted poor families (Swarozgaries) above the Poverty Line by ensuring appreciable sustained level of income over a period of time. This objective is to be achieved by inter alia organising the rural poor into Self Help Groups(SHGs) through the process of social mobilisation, their training and capacity building and provision of income generating assets. The SHG approach helps the poor to build their self-confidence through community action. Interactions in group meetings and collective decision making enables them in identification and prioritization of their needs and resources. This process would ultimately lead to the strengthening and socio-economic empowerment of the rural poor as well as improve their collective bargaining power.
SGSY lays stress on the cluster approach. What this means is that instead of funding diverse activities, each block should concentrate on a few select activities (key activities) and attend to all aspects of these activities, so that the Swarozgaris can draw sustainable incomes from their investments. These key activities should preferably be taken up in clusters so that the backward and forward linkages can be effectively established. This would facilitate not only monitoring but more importantly provision of various services required by the Swarogaris.
- Funds received from Central and State Government properly
- Funds credited to Scheme Account immediately
- There is no delay for funds received from Government.
- As per the guidelines 20% of Target should be utilized Infrastructure facilities for SHGs
- The remaining 80% of Target should be utilized for the District requirements
BASIC ORIENTATION PROGRAMME
- Basic Orientation Programme is must for Self Help Groups
- The Selection Committee is appointed for selection of SHG Members
- BOP conducted by Block Level Officers and approved TOTs should be given training to the SHGs
EDP TRAINING SELF HELP GROUP
- 860 Self Help Group members targeted for the year
- We have achieved 870 Self Help Groups members for EDP Training
EDP TRAINING YOUTH
- Unemployed educated youth should be selected
- 18-35 years old
- We will achieve the target during this month
- Milch Animal
- Fish Sales
- Coconut Leaf NettingCoir Make Products
- Cane Products
- Mushroom etc.
- 20% of Target should be utilized Infrastructure facilities for SHGs.
- During this year, Construction of Multi Purpose Building for SGSY assisted SHGs in Week Panchayats (vide DRD Lr.No.39539/2002/SGSY 1.2 dt.17.7.02
- We will achieve the target during this month.
FUTURE PLAN FOR SGSY (2003-04)
- Tentative Target for Finance Rs.126.193 Lakhs
- 1000 SHGs selected for Revolving Fund
- 1000 SHG members will be trained for Basic Training and EDP
- 100 SHGs selected for Economic Assistance
- Infrastructure Facilities for Self Help Groups
- ICE boxes purchased for Fish Sales Self Help Groups
- Below 35 years old
- Revolving Fund Received SHGs
- Already trained SHGs not allowed
- Only Two members should be selected for a SHG
- Literate members should be selected
- Physically Handicapped persons are first preference
- 20% of SC/ST members must be selected
PRODUCTION OF BRICK
The Sakthi SHG at Kadichembadi village in Sembanarkoil Block in Nagapattinam District was formed on 4.4.2000 with a Bank account No. 66777 at City Union Bank, Sembanarkoil.
The SHG consists of 13 members belonging to scheduled caste. The SHG received Revolving fund of Rs.25,000/- and also received a loan of Rs.2,24,000/- including a subsidy of Rs.1,12,000/- from DRDA, Nagapattinam.
Out of the loan sanctioned to the SHG, the SHG members produced 1,45,000 bricks at an expenditure of Rs.1,04,000/-. The total value of the bricks produced is Rs.1,45,000/-. The SHG earned a net profit of Rs.33,000/- in two months after repaying Rs. 8000/-. Each member has earned Rs.2500/- within two months from this key activity. The bricks produced by this SHG are being used for various works in villages under R.D. Schemes.
The CholanWomen Self Help Group at Veeraperumanallur village, Thirumarugal block in Nagapattinam District was formed on 12.10.2000 with a bank account (No. 3534) at Indian Overseas Bank, Kangalanchery .
This Self Help Group consists of 16 members, of which 13 members belong to scheduled caste and three members belong to other communities inclusive of one handicapped member ( O.C). This Self Help Group received Revolving Fund of Rs.25000/- on 13.8.2002. With the help of the revolving fund and group’s monthly savings, the members purchased goats and cows and by rearing them, the SHG members improved their financial position.
The Self Help Group also received a loan of Rs. 1,40,000/- including a subsidy of Rs.70,000/- from DRDA Nagapattinam on 24.9.2003 for the country fish culture and purchased the following seeds from the Anthakudi Fish farm. The SHG members feed the fishes and the fishes have grown, each weighing about 2 Kg. The SHG harvest the fishes and sell them in the market and thereby earned profit as mentioned below.
- Thaga fish
- Bull Fish
The group remits the monthly dues to the bank properly. They have so far remitted Rs.19,230/- to the bank. The Self Help Group also participated in social activities. The members of the SHG cleaned the streets and roads of their village at the time of 2004 Pongal period.
INTERNET KIOSK (RASI CENTER)
The Kambar Women Self Help Group at Manganallur Village in Kuthalam Block in Nagapattinam District was formed on 14.1.2002 with a bank account (No.12923) at Canara Bank, Manganallur. The SHG consist of 20 members, belonging to other communities (OC)
The SHG received Direct Linkage of Rs.50,000/- on 24.2.2003. With the help of group’s monthly savings, the members purchased tailoring machines and earned income to improve their financial position.
The SHG also received Economic Assistance of Rs.60,000/- including a subsidy of Rs.30,000/- from DRDA, Nagapattinam on 24.1.2004 for the setting up RASI Centre (Internet Kiosk) on 26.2.2004 at Manganallur. Since the SHG remits the monthly dues to the Bank properly. The members of the SHG cleaned the streets .
RASHTRIYA SAM VIKAS YOJANA [RSVY]
Development of an area is the prime aim of the governance. Sometimes the development is measured by per-capita income and at some other times the development is measured by social indicators. However, an over-all picture should be formed taking into account all the aspects of development. Thus we can say that the development means better quality of life for the people.
One of the important aspects of development is equitable distribution of the benefit to all sections of the society and to all territorial areas. Unfortunately, in practice we see inequitable development taking place for various part of the country and State, Though the same schemes of the Central Government is implemented in all the States the benefit is gained only by certain States. In the same way, though the schemes of Central as well as State Governments are applicable for all the districts, some districts do not develop as rapidly as some other districts. There can be various reasons for inequitable development. Development of a district or an area not only depends on the programmes implemented by Government, but also on its ability to extract benefits from the available programmes.
Keeping this into consideration the Union Planning commission has come out with a new initiative in the 10th five year plan termed the Rashtriya Sam Vikas Yojana. This is a three year programme with focused objectives. The main aim of the RSVY programme is to focus on problems of pockets of high poverty, low growth and poor governance. On accounts of its remoteness, poor connectivity, low growth and high poverty which has been further compounded by the poor Cauvery water release, Nagapattinam district in Tamil Nadu qualifies for this programme.
INDIRA AWAAS YOJANA [ IAY ]
significant economic security and status in society. For a shelterless person, a house brings about a profound social change in his existence, endowing him with an identity, thus integrating him with his immediate social milieu.
The objective of IAY is primarily to help construction of dwelling units by members of Scheduled Castes/Schedules Tribes, freed bonded labourers and also non-SC/ST rural poor below the poverty line by providing them grant-in-aid.